Bioengineering active immunotherapy for personalized cancer treatment

Credit: Science Advances (2023). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.ade0625

Breast cancer is resistant to immunotherapies; therefore, bioengineers and oncologists seek to develop a slew of therapeutic strategies to overcome this challenge. In a new report in Science Advances, Kerui Wu and colleagues in the departments of cancer biology, translation biology and breast surgery in the U.S., and China engineered active immunotherapy to create smart nanovesicles for personalized treatment. The research team accomplished this by anchoring membrane-bound bioactive protein interleukin-2 (IL2; made by a type of T lymphocyte) to maintain enriching and T-cell promoting co-stimulatory factors on dendritic cell-derived small extracellular vesicle surfaces. The nanovesicles displayed major-hiscompatibility complex-bound antigens from dendritic immune cells. Upon administration, they saw how the surface-bound IL2 guided nanovesicles toward lymphoid organs associated with immune cells to activate similar immune receptors on lymphocytes. The vesicles named “IL2-ep13nsEV” induced a strong immune reaction in vivo to rescue approximately 50% of mice implanted with patient-derived xenografts while sensitizing cancer cells to immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment to prevent tumor recurrence. The outcomes present a feasible strategy to treat and prevent metastatic breast cancer in preclinical models with applications across diverse cancer types.  Clinical oncologists and bioengineers seek to introduce several new immunotherapeutic agents to improve the clinical outcome of specific cancers. For example, monoclonal antibody-based immune checkpoint inhibitors are markedly efficient to treat patients with lung cancer, melanoma and leukemia. Most patients are, however, resistant to immune checkpoint inhibitor therapies, where acquired resistance and relapse are common upon follow-up treatment.

By Thamarasee Jeewandara , Medical Xpress

Article can be accessed on: MedicalXpress